Russian leader Vladimir Putin has softened planned pension changes following angry protests and a slump in his approval rating.
He said the retirement age for women would be increased from 55 to 60 instead of to 63. But a five-year increase for men, to 65, would stay.
In a rare TV address, Mr Putin said the country’s working-age population was shrinking, making change essential.
Unions have warned that many will not live long enough to claim a pension.
According to BBC News, the World Health Organization says Russian men have a life expectancy of 66 while for women it is 77.